Top 50 PMP Question and Answers

PMP® Certification is the world's leading project management certification in the project management field. It attracts a lot of business and project experts who wish to take their career to the next level. Given that you've arrived at this PMP® Exam Questions & Answers blog, I'm guessing you already know the importance of the PMP Certification. In this PMP exam 2022 questions and answers blog, the knowledge area and its respective processes are explicitly mentioned above every question. Now without much ado, let us get started!

FAQs on PMP Question and Answers

1. The precedence diagramming method (PDM) is defined The precedence diagramming method (PDM) is defined as:

  1. A methodology in which activities are represented by nodes and visually connected by one or more logical connections to illustrate the sequence in which the activities are to be done.
  2. A technique for scheduling project activities that employ a probabilistic approach.
  3. A time-phased graphical depiction of the arrow diagramming technique (ADM) that displays project activity durations and dependencies.
  4. More accurate than the critical route approach for scheduling when the durations of project activities are unknown.

Answer: A
The precedence diagramming method (PDM) is a technique used for constructing a schedule model in which activities are represented by nodes and are graphically linked by one or more logical relationships to show the sequence in which the activities are to be Performed.

[ Knowledge Area: Project Schedule Management, Planning, Domain: Process ]

2. Project Cost Management includes all of the following processes EXCEPT :

  1. Plan cost management
  2. Level resources
  3. Determine budget
  4. Control costs

Answer: B
Project Cost Management includes the processes involved in planning, estimating, budgeting, financing, funding, managing, and controlling costs so that the project can be completed within the approved budget.
The Project Cost Management processes are:

  • Plan Cost Management – The process of defining how the project costs will be estimated, budgeted, managed, monitored, and controlled.
  • Estimate Costs – The process of developing an approximation of the monetary resources needed to complete project work.
  • Determine Budget – The process of aggregating the estimated costs of individual activities or work packages to establish an authorized cost baseline.
  • Control Costs – The process of monitoring the status of the project to update the project costs and manage changes to the cost baseline.

[ Knowledge Area: Project Cost Management, Planning, Domain: Process ]

3. Project Quality Management encompasses the methods for implementing the organization's quality policy into project and product quality criteria in order to:

  1. Meet the goals of stakeholders
  2. Enhance process capabilities
  3. Maintain control over products, services, and outcomes
  4. Meet the project team's performance standards

Answer: A
Project Quality Management includes the processes for incorporating the organizations, quality policy regarding planning, managing, and controlling project and product quality requirements in order to meet stakeholders, objectives. Project Quality Management also supports continuous process improvement activities as undertaken on behalf of the performing organization.

[ Knowledge Area: Project Quality Management, Executing, Domain: Process ]

4. The following are the primary procedures of Project Resource Management:

  1. Leadership, management, teamwork, and negotiation
  2. Create a project staffing plan, recruit a project team, manage personnel actions, and manage labor relations
  3. Create an organizational structure, build a project team, create a communication plan, and manage team conflicts
  4. Plan Resource Management, Estimate Activity Resources, Acquire Resources, Build a Team, Manage a Team, and Control Resources

Answer: D
An overview of the Project Resource Management processes, which are as follows:

  1. Plan Resource Management-The process of defining how to estimate, acquire, manage, and utilize physical and team resources.
  2. Estimate Activity Resources-The process of estimating team resources and the type and quantities of material, equipment, and supplies necessary to perform project work.
  3. Acquire Resources-The process of obtaining team members, facilities, equipment, materials, supplies, and other resources necessary to complete project work.
  4. Develop Team-The process of improving competencies, team member interaction, and the overall team environment to enhance project performance.
  5. Manage Team-The process of tracking team member performance, providing feedback, resolving issues, and managing team changes to optimize project performance.
  6. Control Resources-The process of ensuring that the physical resources assigned and allocated to the project are available as planned, as well as monitoring the planned versus actual use of resources, and performing corrective action as necessary.

[ Knowledge Area: Project Resource Management, Planning, Domain: People ]

5. During the middle of a technical project, a key team member is requested to shift to another project. This is a risky approach, according to the team, and they are concerned. Which action will help to resolve the issue?

  1. Discuss the conflict with the project sponsor and formulate a response
  2. Use coaching tools and techniques to motivate the project team
  3. Replace the key team member with a new resource who has the same skills
  4. Acknowledge the team’s concern and analyze the impact to the project

Answer: D
The project manager must be able to deal with important personnel changes while also keeping the team engaged and productive.

[ Knowledge Area: Project Resource Management , Executing , Domain: People ]

6. A project manager is working on a minor project that is fundamental to the success of a larger programme milestone. To replace a critical resource who had to depart the project, a new resource has been assigned. Unfortunately, according to an outside stakeholder, the individual who assigned the new resource sent their worst team member. How should the project manager approach this rumor?

  1. Assess the new resource’s ability to perform the necessary work by testing their communication skills with the current project team
  2. Evaluate the skills of the new resource to see how the resource can provide value to the project
  3. File a request with the project management office (PMO) manager in order to obtain a better resource
  4. Address the rumor with the new resource’s functional manager to mitigate any conflict within the project team

Answer: B
The rumor can be false without first-hand observation of the performance. In general, any third-party information-hearsay or gossip, is a risk to relationships in a project because it can strain them. Always investigate any suspected problems and find out the facts.

[ Knowledge Area: Project Resource Management , Monitoring , Domain: People ]

7. A project manager in an organization uses traditional project management, and is assigned to an ongoing project. The organization has just begun to adopt agile approaches for project management. Some team members believe that key subject matter expertise is lacking and that the team does not communicate enough.
How should the project manager respond to these team members' concerns?

  1. Employ third-party specialists to fill the knowledge gap
  2. At the next standup meeting, emphasize the importance of collaboration to the entire team
  3. Add cross-functional internal resources and explain their value to the team
  4. Start using Kanban boards instead of Gantt charts so that work co-dependencies become obvious to everyone

Answer: C
Agile projects require "T" shaped team members. Individuals who are cross-functional, who recognize the necessity and benefit of cross-functional collaboration. In this situation, the team will require the addition of qualified resources as well as collaborative people.

[ Knowledge Area: Project Resource Management , Executing , Domain: People ]

8. Project managers spend most of their time communicating with team members and other stakeholders. In general, to effectively communicate , the project manager must perform all of the following tasks EXCEPT:

  1. Calculating the potential number of communication channels accurately
  2. Developing finely tuned skills using multiple methods of communication
  3. Incorporating feedback channels
  4. Seeking to understand project stakeholders' communication needs

Answer: A
The ability to communicate with stakeholders, including the team and sponsors, applies across multiple aspects of the project including, but not limited to:

  • enveloping finely tuned skills using multiple methods (e.g., verbal, written, and nonverbal);
  • Creating, maintaining, and adhering to communications plans and schedules;
  • Communicating predictably and consistently;
  • Seeking to understand the project stakeholders' communication needs (communication may be the only deliverable that some stakeholders receive until the project's end product or service is completed);
  • Making communications concise, clear, complete, simple, relevant, and tailored;
  • Including important positive and negative news;
  • Incorporating feedback channels; and
  • Relationship skills involving the development of extensive networks of people throughout the project manager's spheres of influence.

[ Knowledge Area: Project Communication Management , Executing, Domain: People]

9. A project is nearing completion, and a change in the market forces stakeholders to make the deadline earlier. The project manager quickly provides skilled resources to build and establish the team.
Which of the following options would not include the next step of the project manager's?

  1. Assess required skills for the project
  2. Plan suitable interactions for the team
  3. Train the new team
  4. Create a project schedule

Answer: A
Skill assessment for the project precedes resource assignment. The project manager can begin developing the project team after it has been established. Develop Team is the process of enhancing project performance by strengthening competences, team member interaction, and the overall team environment.

[ Knowledge Area: Project Resource Management , Executing , Domain: People ]

10. You are involved in collecting requirements for your project. So, you are likely to use the stakeholder register for all of the following EXCEPT:

  1. Identifying stakeholders who can provide information on the requirements
  2. Capturing major requirements that stakeholders may have for the project
  3. Capturing main expectations that stakeholders may have for the project
  4. Evaluating the product breakdown structure (PBS) associated with each of the key stakeholders

Answer: D
The stakeholder register is used to identify stakeholders who can provide information on the requirements. It also captures requirements and expectations that stakeholders have for the project and to learn about the main expectations that stakeholders may have for the project.

[ Knowledge Area: Project Stakeholder Management , Planning, Domain: People ]

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11. All of the following affect the duration of the activity except:

  1. The anticipated resource needs for the activity
  2. The resources allotted to the activity
  3. The resources assigned to the activity are available
  4. Scheduling tasks using the precedence diagramming method (PDM) rather than the critical path method (CPM)

Answer: D
Estimate activity durations uses information from the scope of work, required resource types or skill levels, estimated resource quantities, and resource calendars. Other factors that may influence the duration estimates include constraints imposed on the duration, effort involved, or type of resources (e.g., fixed duration, fixed effort or work, fixed number of resources), as well as the schedule network analysis technique used. The inputs for the estimates of duration originate from the person or group on the project team who is most familiar with the nature of the work in the specific activity. The duration estimate is progressively elaborated, and the process considers the quality and availability of the input data. For example, as more detailed and precise data are available about the project engineering and design work, the accuracy and quality of the duration estimates improve.

The specific method for analyzing activity duration does not impact the duration.

[ Knowledge Area: Project Schedule Management, Planning, Domain: Process ]

12. EXCEPT for the following, the cost management strategy possesses all of the following characteristics:

  1. It is independent from the project management plan and is based on project cost estimates
  2. It may provide variance thresholds for cost performance monitoring to indicate an agreed-upon amount of variation to be permitted before taking action
  3. It can select the level of accuracy, which is how much activity cost estimates will be rounded up or down
  4. It explains how the project's costs will be planned, organised, and managed

Answer: A
The cost management plan is a component of the project management plan and describes how the project costs will be planned, structured, and controlled. The cost management processes and their associated tools and techniques are documented in the cost management plan.
For example, the cost management plan can establish the following:

  • Units of measure. Each unit used in measurements (such as staff hours, staff days, or weeks for time measures; meters, liters, tons, kilometers, or cubic yards for quantity measures; or lump sum in currency form) is defined for each of the resources.
  • Level of precision. The degree to which activity cost estimates will be rounded up or down (e.g., US$ 100.49 to US$ 100, or US$ 995.59 to US$ 1,000), based on the scope of the activities and magnitude of the project.
  • Level of accuracy. The acceptable range(e.g., ±10%) used in determining realistic activity cost estimates is specified, and may include an amount for contingencies.
  • Organizational procedures links…
  • Control thresholds. Variance thresholds for monitoring cost performance may be specified to indicate an agreed-upon amount of variation to be allowed before some action needs to be taken. Thresholds are typically expressed as percentage deviations from the baseline plan.
  • Rules of performance measurements
  • Reporting formats
  • Process descriptions.

[ Knowledge Area: Project Cost Management, Planning, Domain: Process]

13. Understanding, assessing, specifying, and managing needs are critical for achieving:

  1. Customer expectations
  2. The scope statement
  3. Upper management
  4. Functional requirements

Answer: A
The process of monitoring and recording the results of executing the quality management activities to assess performance and ensure the project outputs are complete, correct, and meet customer expectations.

[ Knowledge Area: Project Quality Management, Planning, Domain: Process]

14. The Responsibility Assignment Matrix (RAM) is:

  1. Used to create the project budget and network diagrams
  2. Created at the activity level and utilized to tightly connect project roles and responsibilities to project network activities
  3. Used to show the relationships between work packages or activities and project team members. It guarantees that each work is assigned to only one person in order to minimize misunderstanding of responsibilities
  4. Used in individual performance assessments of project team members to establish accountabilities and duties

Answer: C
Used to show the relationships between work packages or activities and project team members. It guarantees that each work is assigned to only one person in order to minimize misunderstanding of responsibilities.
Responsibility Assignment Matrix (RAM). An example of a matrix-based chart is a responsibility assignment matrix (RAM) that shows the project resources assigned to each work package. It is used to illustrate the connections between work packages or activities and project team members. On larger projects, RAMs can be developed at various levels.
For example, a high-level Ram can define the responsibilities of a project team, group, or unit within each component of the WBS. Lower-level RAMs are used within the group to designate roles, responsibilities, and levels of authority for specific activities. The matrix format shows all activities associated with one person and all people associated with one activity. This also ensures that there is only one person accountable for any one task to avoid confusion about who is ultimately in charge or has authority for the work.

[ Knowledge Area: Project Resource Management, Planning, Domain: People]

15. The following are some of the inputs to the Plan Communications Management process:

  1. Project management plan, project documentation, enterprise environmental variables, and organizational process assets
  2. Stakeholder requirements, project scope statement, budget, and timeline
  3. Organizational structure, stakeholder analysis, and communication obstacles in project management
  4. Stakeholder management approach, RAM, work breakdown structure, and administrative processes

Answer: A
The Plan Communications Management inputs are as follows:

  • Project charter
  • Project Management plan
  • Resource management
  • plan Stakeholder engagement plan
  • Project documents
  • Requirements documentation
  • Stakeholder register
  • Enterprise environmental factors
  • Organizational process assets

[ Knowledge Area: Project Communications Management, Planning, Domain: Process]

16. What do you understand by the term Project management?

  1. The integration of the critical path method and the Earned Value Management system
  2. The application of knowledge, skills, tools, and techniques to project activities to meet the project requirements
  3. The application of knowledge, skills, wisdom, science, and art to organizational activities to achieve operational excellence
  4. A subset of most engineering and other technical disciplines

Answer: B
Project management is the application of knowledge, skills, tools, and techniques to project activities to meet the project requirements.
At each point, deliverables and knowledge are transferred between the project and operations for implementation of the delivered work. This implementation occurs through a transfer of project resources to operations toward the end of the project, or through a transfer of operational resources to the project at the start.

[ Knowledge Area: Project resource Management, Planning, Domain: People]

17. Project tailoring is an important consideration for most of the projects. Which of the following is the least likely project consideration?

  1. Project manager’s skills and competency
  2. Each project is unique
  3. Addressing competing constraints
  4. Level of project governance varies

Answer: A
Tailoring is necessary because each project is unique; not every process, tool, technique, input, or output Identified in the PMBOK® Guide is required on every project. Tailoring should address the competing constraints of scope, schedule, cost, resources, quality, and risk. The importance of each constraint is different for each project, and the project manager tailors the approach for managing these constraints based on the project environment, organizational culture, stakeholder needs, and other variables. So, their skills and competency is the least likely project consideration.

[ Knowledge Area: Project Integration Management, Planning, Domain: Process ]

18. All of the following are components of culture EXCEPT :

  1. Values
  2. Norms
  3. Intelligence
  4. Beliefs

Answer: C
Intelligence is not a component of culture as it is the mental ability or strength which is innate and is not acquired through people and surroundings.

[ Knowledge Area: Project Integration Management, Planning, Domain: Process]

19. A Project is experiencing schedule performance issues. The project manager finds that project resources have low levels of knowledge after assessing the issues.
A few senior-level resources, in particular, perform irrelevant work, and some unskilled resources take much too long to accomplish tasks. What should the project manager do to improve the team's performance?

  1. Implement training where necessary and make work requirements more visible for all team members
  2. Reassign the senior-level resources as coaches and mentors to the inexperienced ones
  3. Give the junior team members incentives to work faster; send an email to the senior-level resources
  4. Remind the entire team of project goals, schedules, roles, and timelines during the next team meeting

Answer: A
The project manager must ensure that junior team members are adequately trained and that all team members are doing their assigned tasks. The most thorough method for achieving both goals is to implement training and keep everyone's work visible.

[ Knowledge Area: Project Resource Management , Monitoring , Domain: People ]

20. Developing a document that links product requirements from source to deliverables to ensure each requirement adds business value and manages changes to product scope. This is called:

  1. Configuration management system
  2. Business case
  3. New product development matrix
  4. Requirements traceability matrix

Answer: D
The requirements traceability matrix is a grid that links product requirements from their origin to the deliverables that satisfy them. The implementation of a requirements traceability matrix helps ensure that each requirement adds business value by linking it to the business and project objectives. It provides a means to track requirements throughout the project life cycle, helping to ensure that requirements approved in the requirements documentation are delivered at the end of the project. Finally, it provides a structure for managing changes to the product scope.
Tracing requirements includes, but is not limited to:

  • Business needs, opportunities, goals, and objectives;
  • Project objectives;
  • Project scope and WBS deliverables;
  • Product design;
  • Product development;
  • Test strategy and test scenarios; and
  • High-level requirements to more detailed requirements.

[ Knowledge Area: Project Scope Management, Monitoring, Domain: Process ]

21. A schedule compression technique used to shorten the schedule duration for the least incremental cost by adding resources is called:

  1. Crashing
  2. Program evaluation and review technique (PFRT)
  3. Precedence diagramming method (PDM)
  4. Fast tracking

Answer: A
Schedule compression techniques are used to shorten or accelerate the schedule duration without reducing the project scope in order to meet schedule constraints, imposed dates, or other schedule objectives. A helpful technique is the negative float analysis. The critical path is the one with the least float. Due to violating a constraint or imposed date, the total float can become negative. Two approaches are crashing and fast tracking:

  • Crashing. A technique used to shorten the schedule duration for the least incremental cost by adding resources. Examples of crashing include approving overtime, bringing in additional resources, or paying to expedite delivery to activities on the critical path. Crashing works only for activities on the critical path where additional resources will shorten the activity duration. Crashing does not always produce a viable alternative and may result in increased risk and/ or cost.

[ Knowledge Area: Project Schedule Management, Planning, Domain: Process ]

22. Except ______ all of the following are true about cost estimates:

  1. Cost estimates are often presented in units of currency (e.g., dollars, euros, yen, etc.), however in certain cases, alternative units of measurement, such as staff hours or staff days, are used to ease comparisons by removing the impacts of currency changes
  2. The costs of all resources that will be charged to the project are estimated
  3. Risk register information should not be used in cost projections since risks can be either threats or opportunities, and their effects tend to balance out
  4. A cost estimate is a quantitative evaluation of the anticipated expenses for the resources needed to execute the assignment

Answer: A
The cost management plan is a component of the project management plan and describes how the project costs will be planned, structured, and controlled. The cost management processes and their associated tools and techniques are documented in the cost management plan.
For example, the cost management plan can establish the following:

  • Units of measure. Each unit used in measurements (such as staff hours, staff days, or weeks for time measures; meters, liters, tons, kilometers, or cubic yards for quantity measures; or lump sum in currency form) is defined for each of the resources.
  • Level of precision. The degree to which activity cost estimates will be rounded up or down (e.g., US$ 100.49 to US$ 100, or US$ 995.59 to US$ 1,000), based on the scope of the activities and magnitude of the project
  • Level of accuracy. The acceptable range(e.g., ±10%) used in determining realistic activity cost estimates are specified, and may include an amount for contingencies
  • Organizational procedures links
  • Control thresholds. Variance thresholds for monitoring cost performance may be specified to indicate an agreed-upon amount of variation to be allowed before some action needs to be taken. Thresholds are typically expressed as percentage deviations from the baseline plan.
  • Rules of performance measurement
  • Reporting formats
  • Process descriptions

[ Knowledge Area: Project Cost Management, Planning, Domain: Process ]

23. Except for ________ all of the following are primary benefits of meeting quality requirements:

  1. Less redoing
  2. Increased Productivity
  3. Lowering expenses
  4. Less change orders

Answer: D
Data analysis techniques that can be used for this process include, but are not limited to: Cost-benefit analysis. A cost-benefit analysis is a financial analysis tool used to estimate the strengths and weaknesses of alternatives in order to determine the best alternative in terms of benefits provided. A cost-benefit analysis will help the project manager determine if the planned quality activities are cost effective. The primary benefits of meeting quality requirements include less rework, higher productivity, lower costs, increased stakeholder satisfaction, and increased profitability. A cost-benefit analysis for each quality activity compares the cost of the quality step to the expected benefit.

[ Knowledge Area: Project Quality Management, Planning, Domain: Process ]

24. All of the following should be included in a plan resource management except:

  1. Responsibilities and roles
  2. Resource identification
  3. Obtaining resources
  4. Project interfaces

Answer: C
Responsibility Assignment Matrix (RAM). An example of a matrix-based chart is a responsibility assignment matrix (RAM) that shows the project resources assigned to each work package. It is used to illustrate the connections between work packages or activities and project team members. On larger projects, RAMs can be developed at various levels. For example, a high-level Ram can define the responsibilities of a project team, group, or unit within each component of the WBS. Lower-level RAMs are used within the group to designate roles, responsibilities, and levels of authority for specific activities. The matrix format shows all activities associated with one person and all people associated with one activity. This also ensures that there is only one person accountable for any one task to avoid confusion about who is ultimately in charge or has authority for the work. One example of a RAM is a RACI. (Responsible, accountable, consult, and inform) chart. The assigned resources can be shown as individuals or groups.
The project manager can select other options, such as “lead” and “resource” designation, as appropriate for the project. A RACI chart is a useful tool to use to ensure clear assignment of roles and responsibilities when the team consists of internal and external resources.

[ Knowledge Area: Project Resource Management, Planning, Domain: People ]

25. The communications management strategy generally includes all of the following except:

  1. Communication information, including language, format, topic, and amount of detail
  2. Timetable and frequency for distributing required information and receiving acknowledgement or response, if applicable
  3. Information delivery methods or technology, such as memos, email, and/or press releases
  4. Project-related email archives, communications, reports, and documentation from all stakeholders

Answer: D
The communications management plan is a component of the project management plan that describes how project communications will be planned, structured, monitored, and controlled. The plan contains the following information:

  • Stakeholder communication requirements;
  • Information to be communicated, including language, format, content, and level of detail;
  • Reason for the distribution of that information;
  • Time frame and frequency for the distribution of required information and receipt of acknowledgment or response, if applicable;
  • Person responsible for communicating the information;
  • Person responsible for authorizing release of confidential information;
  • Person or groups who will receive the information;
  • Methods or technologies used to convey the information, such as memos, email, and/or press releases;
  • Resources allocated for communication activities, including time and budget;
  • Escalation process identifying time frames and the management chain (name) for escalation of issues that cannot be resolved at a lower staff level;
  • Method for updating and refining the communications management plan as the project progresses and develops;
  • Glossary of common terminology;
  • Flow charts of the information flow in the project, workflows with possible sequence of authorization list of reports, and meeting plans, etc.; and
  • Communication constraints usually derived from a specific legislation or regulation, technology, and organizational policies, etc. The communications management plan can also include guidelines and templates for project status meetings, project team meetings, e-meetings, and email messages. The use of a project website and project management software can also be included if these are to be used in the project.

[ Knowledge Area: Project Communications Management, Executing, Domain: People]

26. What does Portfolio management refer to?

  1. Managing various contents of the project file.
  2. Managing the levels of the levels of financial authority to facilitate
  3. Project decision making
  4. The centralized management of one or more portfolios to achieve strategic objectives
  5. Applying resource leveling heuristics across all the organization’s strategic objectives

Answer: C
Portfolio management refers to the centralized management of one or more portfolios to achieve strategic objectives. Portfolio management focuses on ensuring that projects and programs are reviewed to prioritize resource allocation and that the management of the portfolio is consistent with and aligned to organizational strategies.

[ Knowledge Area: Project Quality Management, Planning, Domain: Process]

27. Enterprise environmental factors refer to internal and external environmental factors that surround or influence the success of a project. All of the following apply to these factors EXCEPT:

  1. Enterprise environmental factors include organizational culture, structure, and processes
  2. Enterprise environmental factors include government or industry standards, such as regulatory agency regulations, codes of conduct, product standards, quality standards, and workmanship standards
  3. Enterprise environmental factors include information technology software (e.g., an automated tool, such as a scheduling software tool, a configuration management system, an information collection and distribution system, or web interfaces to other online automated systems)
  4. Enterprise environmental factors exclude personnel administration functions (e.g., staffing and retention guidelines, employee performance reviews and training records, and time tracking) because these are considered to be functions of the human resources department.

Answer: D
Enterprise environmental factors exclude personnel administration functions (e.g., staffing and retention guidelines, employee performance reviews and training records, and time tracking) because these are considered to be functions of the human resources department. Enterprise environmental factors (EEFs) refer to conditions, not under the control of the project team, that influence, constrain, or direct the project. Enterprise environmental factors are considered inputs to most planning processes, may enhance or constrain project management options, and may have a positive or negative influence on the outcome. EEFs vary widely in type or nature. These factors need to be considered if the project is to be effective. EEFs include, but are not limited to, the factors below.
The following EEFs are internal to the organization:

  1. Organizational culture, structure, and governance. Examples include vision, mission, values, beliefs, cultural norms, leadership styles, hierarchy and authority relationships, organizational styles, ethics, and codes of conduct.
  2. Geographic distribution of facilities and resources. Examples include factory locations, virtual teams, shared systems, and cloud computing.
  3. Infrastructure. Examples include existing facilities, equipment, organizational telecommunications channels, information technology hardware, availability, and capacity.
  4. Information technology software. Examples include scheduling software tools, configuration management systems, web interfaces to other online automated systems, and work authorization systems
  5. Resource availability. Examples include contracting and purchasing constraints, approved providers and subcontractors, and collaboration agreements.
  6. Employee capability. Examples include existing human resources expertise, skills, competencies, and specialized knowledge.

[ Knowledge Area: Project Resource Management, Planning, Domain: People]

28. While performing integration on the project, one of the roles of the project manager is :

  1. To work with the project sponsor to understand the strategic objectives and ensure the alignment of the project objectives and results with those of the project and business area
  2. To perform all of the work that is required to get the project approved and baselined for communication to the team
  3. To complete the project charter and seek formal approval from the sponsor of the project
  4. To involve the team in group activities to facilitate teamwork, which builds an integrated project organizational structure

Answer: A
To work with the project sponsor to understand the strategic objectives and ensure the alignment of the project objectives and results with those of the project and business area.
The role of the project manager is twofold when performing integration on the project:
Project managers play a key role in working with the project sponsor to understand the strategic objectives and ensure the alignment of the project objectives and results with those of the portfolio, program, and business areas. In this way, project managers contribute to the integration and execution of the strategy; and
Project managers are responsible for guiding the team to work together to focus on what is really essential at the project level. This is achieved through the integration of processes, knowledge, and people.

[ Knowledge Area: Project Integration Management, Planning, Domain: People]

29. Which is NOT true about tools and techniques of Perform Integrated Change Control?

  1. They include expert judgment
  2. They include change control meetings
  3. A change control board (CCB) is responsible for meeting and reviewing the change requests and approving, rejecting, or other disposition of those changes
  4. They include project plan updates

Answer: D
Expertise should be considered from individuals or groups with specialized knowledge of or training in the following topics:
Technical knowledge of the industry and focus area of the project,

  1. Legislation and regulations,
  2. Legal and procurement,
  3. Configuration management, and
  4. Risk management
Change control meetings are held with a change control board (CCB) that is responsible for meeting and reviewing the change requests and approving, rejecting or deferring change requests. Most changes will have some sort of impact on time, cost, resources, or risks. Assessing the impact of the changes is an essential part of the meeting. Alternatives to the requested changes may also be discussed and proposed. Finally, the decision is communicated to the request owner or group, but does not include project plan updates.

[ Knowledge Area: Project Integration Management , Monitoring, Domain: People]

30. What is the output of the Define Scope process?

  1. Work breakdown structure (WBS)
  2. Resource breakdown structure (RBS)
  3. Project scope statement
  4. Scope and schedule delays control plan

Answer: C
Define Scope: Outputs
Outputs from the Define Scope process are as follows:
1. Project scope statement. 2. Project document updates:

  1. Assumption log,
  2. Requirements documentation,
  3. Requirements traceability matrix, and
  4. Stakeholder register.

[ Knowledge Area: Project Scope Management, Planning, Domain: Business Environment]

31. The "fast tracking" approach of schedule compression entails the following steps:

  1. The application of industrial engineering approaches to increase productivity, allowing the project to be completed sooner than anticipated
  2. Performing operations or stages that are typically done in sequence in parallel for at least a portion of their duration, which may result in rework and higher risk
  3. Implementing a "necessary overtime plan" in order to complete the project on time or sooner if possible
  4. Assigning "dedicated teams" to key path tasks in order to meet project deadlines

Answer: B
Performing operations or stages that are typically done in sequence in parallel for at least a portion of their duration, which may result in rework and higher risk.
Schedule compression techniques are used to shorten or accelerate the schedule duration without reducing the project scope in order to meet schedule constraints, imposed dates, or other schedule objectives. A helpful technique is the negative float analysis. The critical path is the one with the least float. Due to violating a constraint or imposed date, the total float can become negative. Two approaches are crashing and fast tracking:

  • Fast tracking. A schedule compression technique in which activities or phases normally done in sequence are performed in parallel for at least a portion of their duration. An example is constructing the foundation for a building before completing all of the architectural drawings. Fast tracking may result in rework and increased risk. Fast tracking only works when activities can be overlapped to shorten the project duration on the critical path. Using leads in case of schedule acceleration usually increases coordination efforts between the activities concerned and increases quality risk. Fast tracking may also increase project costs.

[ Knowledge Area: Project Schedule Management, Planning, Domain: Process ]

32. Parametric estimating entails:

  1. Defining project life cycle cost and duration parameters
  2. Creating independent cost estimates for each work package and combining them to determine the final project cost
  3. Creating a cost estimate for project work by using a statistical link between relevant historical data and other variables
  4. Estimating the cost of the present project based on the actual cost of a prior similar project

Answer A
Parametric estimating entails the analysis of cost, programmatic and technical data to identify cost drivers and develop cost models for project life cycle cost and duration parameters.

[ Knowledge Area: Project Cost Management, Planning, Domain: Process]

33. During the last phase of a team's project, an agile approach is required. While the team discusses the phase, some team members reveal that they have never worked with agile before. The deadline is approaching fast. What should the project manager do in this situation?

  1. File a change request that addresses the agile training that members lack
  2. Escalate this as an issue to the project sponsor, as it is a company-wide issue and a blocker for this project
  3. Ask the team members who have worked with agile to mentor the others
  4. Identify and provide the most cost-effective agile training for team members

Answer: D
Providing project team members with training is the best option here. Also, training lessons and associated expenses might be evaluated and included into resource and cost management plans. Mentoring is a great concept, but if you have a strict schedule, you may not have enough time to impart skills while working on your project. Finally, it is the project manager, not the project sponsors, who must deal with this issue.

[ Knowledge Area: Project Resource Management , Monitoring , Domain: People ]

34. All of the following questions are raised when planning the acquisition of team members except:

  1. Whether the resources come from within the organization or are contracted from other sources
  2. The costs of each level of expertise required for the project
  3. Senior executive compensation
  4. The level to which the organization's human resources department and functional managers can support the project management team

Answer: D
The resource management plan is the component of the project management plan that provides guidance on how project resources should be categorized, allocated, managed, and released. It may be divided between the team management plan and physical resource management plan according to the specifies of the project.
The resource management plan may include, but is not limited to the following:

  • Identification of resources. Methods for identifying and quantifying team and physical resources needed.
  • Acquiring resources. Guidance on how to acquire team and physical resources for the project.
  • Roles and responsibilities. So the option is D.

[ Knowledge Area: Project Resource Management, Planning, Domain: People]

35. Web interfaces to scheduling and project management software, as well as electronic communications management, are examples of:

  1. Project management information systems (PMIS)
  2. Internal communications systems (ICS)
  3. Internal management systems (IMS)
  4. Project records databases

Answer: A
Project information is managed and distributed using a variety of tools, including:

  • Hard-copy document management: letters, memos, reports, and press releases;
  • Electronic communications management: email, fax, voicemail, telephone, video and
  • web conferencing, websites, and web publishing; and Electronic project management tools: web interfaces to scheduling and project management software, meeting and virtual office support software, portable, and collaborative work management tools.

[ Knowledge Area: Project Communications Management, Monitoring, Domain: Process]

36. These are all questions that key stakeholders and project managers must answer in order to develop measures of project success EXCEPT:

  1. What does success look like for the project?
  2. How will success be measured?
  3. What are the communication requirements?
  4. What factors may impact success?

Answer: C
Arguably, all responses are suitable during project planning. However, the three most important questions for defining project success are:

  • What does success look like for the project?
  • How will success be measured?
  • What factors may impact success?
The answer on communication requirements is an important consideration, but it occurs at a more detailed planning level for creating a project communications plan, which leads to project success.

[ Knowledge Area: Project Stakeholder Management, Planning, Domain: People]

37. The types of project management office structures in organizations include all of the following EXCEPT:

  1. Supportive PMOs that provide a consultative role to projects by supplying templates, best practices, training, access to information, and lessons learned from other projects
  2. Controlling PMOs that provide support and require compliance through various means
  3. Harmonizing PMOs that strive to reduce conflict and improve harmony among project team members
  4. Directive PMOs that take control of the projects by directly managing the projects

Answer: C
There are several types of PMO structures in organizations, each varying in the degree of control and influence they have on projects within the organization, such as the following:

  • Supportive. Supportive PMOs provide a consultative role to projects by supplying templates, best practices, training, access to information, and lessons learned from other projects. This type of PMO serves as a project repository. The degree of control provided by the PMO is low.
  • Controlling. Controlling PMOs provide support and require compliance through various means. Compliance may involve adopting project management frameworks or methodologies; using specific templates, forms, and tools; or conformance to governance. The degree of control provided by the PMO is moderate.
  • Directive. Directive PMOs take control of the projects by directly managing the projects. The degree of control provided by the PMO is high.

[ Knowledge Area: Project Integration Management, Planning, Domain: Process]

38. Performing integration is a foundational skill for all project managers; the following describe the three different levels of performing integration EXCEPT :

  1. Cognitive level
  2. Process level
  3. Complexity level
  4. Context level

Answer: C
Integration is a critical skill for project managers. Integration takes place at three different levels: process, cognitive, and context.

[ Knowledge Area: Project Cost Management, Planning, Domain: Process]

39. You are managing a $10 million project . For "re-baselining" the project, which of the following is an acceptable cause?

  1. The client has approved an addition to the scope of the project with a $150,000 budget increase and a two-week extension of the scheduled completion
  2. The contractor’s company has instituted a quality assurance program in which it has pledged to spend $1 million during the next year
  3. The productivity in the design department is lower than estimated, which has resulted in 1,000 additional hours over what was budgeted and a forecasted two-week delay of the scheduled completion
  4. The engineering department of the performing organization has converted to a new $250,000 CAD system

Answer: A
The most acceptable cause for this can be the client has approved an addition to the scope of the project with a $150,000 budget increase and a two-week extension of the scheduled completion.

[ Knowledge Area: Project Scope Management , Monitoring, Domain: Process]

40. The following statements are true about the project scope statement EXCEPT:

  1. It is an output of the Validate Scope process
  2. It describes, in detail, the project’s deliverables and the work required to create those deliverables
  3. It provides a common understanding of the project scope among project stakeholders
  4. It may contain explicit scope exclusions that can assist in managing stakeholder expectations

Answer: A
Project Scope Statement
The project scope statement is the description of the project scope, major deliverables, assumptions, and constraints. The project scope statement documents the entire scope, including project and product scope. It describes the project's deliverables in detail. It also provides a common understanding of the project scope among project stakeholders. It may contain explicit scope exclusions that can assist in managing stakeholder expectations. It enables the project team to perform more detailed planning, guides the project team's work during execution, and provides the baseline for evaluating whether requests for changes or additional work are contained within or outside the project's boundaries. The detailed project scope statement, either directly or by reference to other documents, includes the following:

  • Product scope description. Progressively elaborates the characteristics of the product, service, or result described in the project charter and requirements documentation.
  • Deliverables. Any unique and verifiable product, result, or capability to perform a service that is required to be produced to complete a process, phase, or project. Deliverables also include ancillary results, such as project management reports and documentation. These deliverables may be described at a summary level or in great detail.
  • Acceptance criteria. A set of conditions that is required to be met before deliverables are accepted.
  • Project exclusions. Identify what is excluded from the project; explicitly stating what is out of scope for the project helps manage stakeholders' expectations and can reduce scope creep.

[ Knowledge Area: Project Scope Management, Planning, Domain: Process ]

41. As an example of a mandatory dependence, consider the following:

  1. A dependence developed based on knowledge of best practices in a certain application area
  2. A dependence formed because of an unusual element of the project that requires a certain sequencing
  3. To erect the superstructure only after the foundation has been completed for a construction project
  4. On a software development project, begin design only when all project requirements have been completed and approved

Answer: C
Dependencies may be characterized by the following attributes: mandatory or discretionary,
internal or external (as described below). Dependency has four attributes, but two can be
applicable at the same time in the following ways: mandatory external dependencies, mandatory internal dependencies, discretionary external dependencies, or discretionary
internal dependencies.

  • Mandatory dependencies. Mandatory dependencies are those that are legally or contractually required or inherent in the nature of the work. Mandatory dependencies often involve physical limitations, such as on a construction project, where it is impossible
    to erect the superstructure until after the foundation has been built, or on an electronics
    project, where a prototype has to be built before it can be tested. Mandatory
    dependencies are sometimes referred to as hard logic or hard dependencies. Technical
    dependencies may not be mandatory. The project team determines which dependencies
    are mandatory during the process of sequencing the activities. Mandatory dependencies
    should not be confused with assigning schedule constraints in the scheduling tool.
  • Discretionary dependencies. Discretionary dependencies are sometimes referred to as preferred logic, preferential logic, or soft logic. Discretionary dependencies are established based on knowledge of best practices within a particular application area
    or
    some unusual aspect of the project where a specific sequence is desired, even though
    there may be other acceptable sequences. For example, generally accepted best practices recommend that during construction, the electrical work should start after finishing the plumbing work. This order is not mandatory and both activities may occur at the same time (in parallel), but performing the activities in sequential order reduces the overall project risk. Discretionary dependencies should be fully documented
    since they can create arbitrary totals.

[ Knowledge Area: Project Schedule Management, Planning, Domain: Process ]

42. Except -------------- for the following resource categories, activity cost estimate includes all of the following resource categories:

  1. Labor
  2. Materials
  3. Equipment
  4. Time constraints

Answer D
An activity cost estimate includes those costs associated with all the resources required to complete the activity. The various types of costs might include direct and indirect costs associated with labor, materials, equipment, services, facilities, exchange rates, inflation and allowance.

[ Knowledge Area: Project Cost Management, Planning, Domain: Process]

43. A component of the quality management plan, which explains how the organization's quality policies will be executed.

  1. Project management plan
  2. Program management plan
  3. Project scope
  4. Governance management plan

Answer: A
The quality management plan is a component of the project management plan that describes how applicable policies, procedures, and guidelines will be implemented to achieve the quality objectives. It describes the activities and resources necessary for the project management team to achieve the quality objectives set for the project. The quality management plan may be formal or informal, detailed, or broadly framed. The style and detail of the quality management plan are determined by the requirements of the project. The quality management plan should be reviewed early in the project to ensure that decisions are based on accurate information. The benefits of this review can include a sharper focus on the projects value proposition, reductions in costs, and less frequent schedule overruns that are caused by rework.

[ Knowledge Area: Project Quality Management, Planning, Domain: Process]

44. The process of validating resource availability and assembling the team required to accomplish project tasks is known as resource acquisition. Except for the above, the enterprise environmental factors that might impact this process typically include all of the following:

  1. The organization's structure
  2. Political philosophy
  3. Levels of competence, past experience, and cost rate
  4. Personnel administration policies, such as those affecting outsourcing

Answer: C
Acquire Resources it the process of obtaining team members, facilities, equipment, materials, supplies, and other resources necessary to complete project work. The key benefit of this process is that it outlines and guides the selection of resources and assigns them to the respective activities. This process is performed periodical throughout the project as needed. The resources needed for the project can be internal or external to the project-performing organization. Internal resources are acquired (assigned) from functional or resource managers. External resources are acquired through the procurement processes.
The Project management team may or may not have direct control over resource selection because of collective bargaining agreements, use of subcontractor personnel, a matrix project environment, internal or external reporting relationships, or other reasons.

[ Knowledge Area: Project Resource Management, Executing, Domain: People]

45. All of the following are factors that can affect the choice of communication technology except:

  1. Urgency of the need for information
  2. Availability of technology
  3. Executive requirements
  4. Sensitivity and confidentiality of the information

Answer: C
The methods used to transfer information among project stakeholders may vary significantly. Factors that can effect the choice of communication technology include:

  • Urgency of the need for information
  • Availability of technology
  • Ease of use
  • Project environment
  • Sensitivity and confidentiality of the information

[ Knowledge Area: Project Communications Management, Execution, Domain: Process]

46. Define a program?

  1. Group of related tasks lasting one year or less
  2. Group of related projects, subsidiary programs, and program activities managed in a coordinated manner
  3. Large projects with significant cost and resource requirements
  4. Sequence of activities constituting a major project

Answer: B
A program is defined as a group of related projects, subsidiary programs, and program activities managed in a coordinated manner to obtain benefits not available from managing them individually. Programs are not large projects.

[ Knowledge Area: Project Integration Management, Planning, Domain: Process]

47. A primary function of a project management office (PMO) is to support project managers in a variety of ways, which will include all of the following EXCEPT:

  1. Intervening in project execution directly and without involving the project manager
  2. Managing shared resources across all projects administered by the PMO
  3. Identifying and developing project management methodology, best practices, and standards
  4. Coaching, mentoring, training, and oversight

Answer: A
A primary function of a PMO is to support project managers in a variety of ways, which may include, but are not limited to:

  • Managing shared resources across all projects administered by the PMO;
  • Identifying and developing project management methodologies, best practices, and standards;
  • Coaching, mentoring, training, and oversight;
  • Monitoring compliance with project management standards, policies, procedures, and templates by means of project audits;
  • Developing and managing project policies, procedures, templates, and other shared documentation (organizational process assets); and
  • Coordinating communication across projects.
PMOs do not generally intervene in a project's direction, especially without communicating with the project manager.

[ Knowledge Area: Project Resource Management, Planning, Domain: People]

48. Complexity in projects is because of many different organizational behaviors; the dimensions of complexity include all of the following EXCEPT :

  1. System behavior
  2. Human behavior
  3. Ambiguity
  4. Process behavior

Answer: D
Complexity within projects is a result of the organization's system behavior, human behavior, and the uncertainty at work in the organization or its environment. The three dimensions of complexity are defined as follows:

  • System behavior. The interdependencies of components and systems.
  • Human behavior. The interplay between diverse individuals and groups.
  • Ambiguity. Uncertainty of emerging issues and lack of understanding or confusion.

[ Knowledge Area: Project Scope Management, Monitoring, Domain: Process]

49. What is Configuration management focused on?

  1. The identification and correction of problems arising in functional areas of project implementation
  2. The specification of both the deliverables and the processes, while change control is focused on identifying, documenting, and approving or rejecting changes to the project documents, deliverables, or baselines
  3. Testing new systems
  4. Identifying, documenting, and controlling changes to the project and the product baselines, while change control is focused on the specifications of both the deliverables and the processes

Answer: B
Configuration control is focused on the specification of both the deliverables and the processes, while change control is focused on identifying, documenting, and approving or rejecting changes to the project documents, deliverables, or baselines.

[ Knowledge Area: Project Integration Management , Planning, Domain: Process]

50. Which of the following statements is true about the work breakdown structure (WBS)?

  1. The WBS is a hierarchical decomposition of the total scope of work to be carried out by the project team to accomplish the project objectives and create the required deliverables
  2. The WBS is a simple list of project activities in chart form
  3. The WBS is the same as the organizational breakdown structure OBS
  4. The WBS is the bill of materials (BOM) needed to accomplish the project objectives and create the required deliverables

Answer: A
Create WBS
Create WBS is the process of subdividing project deliverables and project work into smaller, more manageable components. The key benefit of this process is that it provides a framework of what has to be delivered. This process is performed once or at predefined points in the project.
The WBS is a hierarchical decomposition of the total scope of work to be carried out by the project team to accomplish the project objectives and create the required deliverables. The WBS organizes and defines the total scope of the project and represents the work specified in the current approved project scope statement.

[ Knowledge Area: Project Scope Management, Planning, Domain: Process ]

Conclusion:

Project management is the most sought-after profession, which also sums up the recent boom in project management roles and responsibilities in the job market. However, in an ecosystem where over 1 million PMP certified experts have proven their worth, one must be proactive in their approach. Enroll in Invensis Learning's PMP certification program to embark on a successful journey in the Project Management domain.

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PMP Certification Training and Exam Details

Areas of Study

  • Project leadership skills & techniques
  • Developing project schedules, cost estimates, and budgets
  • Planning project staffing and communication
  • Identifying, assessing & controlling project risk
  • Added focus on predictive, agile and hybrid approaches
  • Plan and manage project procurement
  • Managing conflicts and making feasible project decisions
  • Monitoring and controlling of project work, and more

  • To be eligible for the PMP certification exam, you must meet certain educational and professional requirements

    Option 1:

  • A four-year degree along with 35 Hours of Project Management training or CAPM certification
  • 36 months experience of leading projects

    Option 2:

  • A high school diploma or an associate’s degree (or global equivalent)
  • An additional 35 hours of Project Management training or CAPM certification
  • 60 months experience of leading projects

  • Exam Type: Multiple choice, multiple responses, matching, hotspot, etc.
  • No Of Questions: 180 questions per paper, 175 scored
  • Exam duration: 230 Minutes
  • Type: Closed book exam
  • Result: The passing score is determined through psychometric analysis

    The PMP Certification fees for PMI Members is USD 405 and for non-members is USD 555.

  • The PMP Certification training cost is around 1000 USD to 1500 USD. For more details, please refer to the training schedule given below. Select your preferred date and enroll in the PMP course.

Job roles that can benefit from PMP Exam Prep Course include, but are not limited to:

  • Associate Project Managers
  • Project Managers
  • IT Project Managers
  • Project Coordinators
  • Project Analysts
  • Project Leaders
  • Product Managers
  • Program Managers
  • Project Sponsors
  • Project Team Members

Invensis Learning has been reviewed and approved by the PMI Authorized Training Partner Program to provide 4-day instructed led PMP Certification Training.

FAQs on PMP Certification

For how long does the PMP certification stay valid?

The PMP Certification is valid for three years, starting from the day the candidate clears the exam. In this period, the candidate must earn 60 PDUs to maintain the PMP credential after the completion of 3 years.

The PMP Certification Exam cost is USD 405 for members and USD 555 for non-members.

The project management experience is any work that is spent planning and executing projects. This may include any work related to initial planning, time management, execution, budget allocation, risk management, etc.

Job roles that can benefit from the PMP Exam Prep Course include, but are not limited to:

  • Associate Project Managers
  • IT Project Managers
  • Project Coordinators
  • Project Analysts
  • Project Leaders
  • Product Managers
  • Program Managers
  • Project Sponsors
  • Project Team Members

After completing your PMP Exam Prep training, you will gain an in-depth understanding of:

  • Initiating a project
  • Planning project work
  • Developing Project schedules, cost estimates, and budgets
  • Planning project staffing and communication
  • Analyze projects risks
  • Plan and manage project procurement
  • Monitoring and controlling of project work, and more

There are a set of minimum requirements to be met for PMP certification. The prerequisites to take the PMP certification exam are:

Scenario 1

  • Educational Background: Secondary degree (high school diploma, associate’s degree, or the global equivalent)
  • Project Management Experience: 60 months leading and directing projects
  • Project Management Education: 35 hours of project management education or CAPM certification

Scenario 2

  • Educational Background: Four-year degree
  • Project Management Education: 36 months hours leading and directing projects
  • Project Management Education: 35 hours of project management education or CAPM certification

  • Exam Type: Multiple choice, multiple responses, matching, hotspot, etc.
  • No Of Questions: 180 questions per paper, 175 scored
  • Exam duration: 230 Minutes
  • Type: Closed book exam

Result: The passing score is determined through psychometric analysis

The most challenging part is clearing the eligibility criteria for the PMP Certification. Once you have done that, half the job is done. The other half is the examination and maintaining the credential. A structured learning path and dedicated preparation are needed to get PMP certified.

After clearing the necessary eligibility requirements for the PMP Certification, including the 35 hours of training/learning, the application process can be started. Where the audit will take place, and a candidate has to pay the exam fee. This could take anywhere between 5 days to 3 months. In short, getting a PMP certification can take up to 8-10 weeks, including the preparation and PMP Certification training.

The eligibility criteria clearly state that a candidate must have project management experience. So, unfortunately, a candidate cannot get a PMP Certification without experience. But a little relaxation in qualifications is overwhelming. A high school diploma holder can also appear for the certification after completing the other eligibility requirements.

The most important thing to consider with the PMBOK® Guide - 7th edition is that it does not make any impact on the PMP Exam Prep Training material. The training material is solely based to cater the PMP exam content outline which was reconstructed in January 2021, and covers the new domains i.e people, processes, and business environment along with the tasks and enablers in respective domains.

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